• Michelle Ann Kline

    Assistant Professor | Simon Fraser University

    Welcome! I'm an Assistant Professor in Psychology at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada. I earned my PhD in Anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles. I study human behavior and development through the lens of cultural evolutionary theory. My research focuses primarily on social learning, in places and communities beyond Western societies. My current field site is in the Yasawa Islands, Fiji. I am also starting a field project working with parents in East Vancouver.


    I am recruiting graduate students for 2020, please email me directly (makline [at] sfu.ca ) if you are considering applying!


    You can download my most recent CV here.

  • Research

    Culture, Behavior, Evolution, and Development | @CUBEDLab

    Evolution of Teaching

    More than other species, humans depend upon socially learned information -- culture -- for our survival and adaptation to novel environments. What we learn varies across sociocultural contexts, but with this project I investigate variation in how humans learn. Teaching plays a major role in this story.

    Causal Understanding

    Through cumulative culture, humans create, use, modify, and pass on technologies that are too complex for any one person to have invented in a single lifetime. This applies equally from smartphones to traditional medicine. Through this project, I ask how learners balance new ideas with old, and their own insights with what they learn from others.

    Community-based Research in East Vancouver

    I am beginning a new research endeavor working in East Vancouver communities with parents and families. This project will look at parental learning. If you are a prospective student interested in "local" field research in the Vancouver area or Canada more broadly, please contact me!

    Cultural Evolution & Sustainability

    Consumption is easy to understand: consuming more means we're more likely to survive and reproduce. Less intuitive is an understanding of why and how humans might manage resources for sustainable consumption. This project leverages cultural evolutionary theory to talk about how human groups may be able to solve sustainability problems.

  • Field site

    Yasawa Islands, Fiji | 2008 - present


    Yasawa Island, Fiji

    I conduct field work in villages on Yasawa Island, the last in the Yasawan archipelago in the Northwestern region of the Fijian Islands.


    Horticultural & fishing villages, in a tourism-based national economy

    Villages on Yasawa Island are typically composed of around 200 people, subsisting on horticulture and fishing. This matters for studies of learning because it means that village residents need to master traditional subsistence skills to be successful in the community. Daily social life is structured largely by kinship relationships, and kinship is organized by patrilineal clans.

    The 2017 field team includes Matthew Gervais (ASU), Sereima Doge (FNU), Salote Vudiniabola (FNU), and Eroni Delai (USP)

    Field Team

    Collaborators, Research Assistants, and Village Residents all play roles in the research.

    I began work on Yasawa Island in 2008, and have been lucky to work with a great combination of academic researchers, as well as Indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) research assistants from mainland Fiji and from Yasawa Island itself. During research, all members of the team live and work in the village (see our lab photo, left), and eat meals with a host family - so the village residents are more than just research participants, they are a part of the field team's support system and crucial to making the research possible.

  • Publications

    Published and forthcoming | See GoogleScholar for recent updates.


    Kline, M. A., Shamsudheen, R., & Broesch, T. 2018. Variation is the universal: making cultural evolution work in developmental psychology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1743), 20170059.


    Grunspan, D. Z., Kline, M. A., & Brownell, S. E. (2018). The Lecture Machine: A Cultural Evolutionary Model of Pedagogy in Higher Education. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(3), es6.


    Kline, M. A., Waring, T. M., & Salerno, J. (2018). Designing cultural multilevel selection research for sustainability science. Sustainability science, 13(1), 9-19.

    Kline, M.A. 2016. TEACH: An Ethogram-based Method to Observe and Record Teaching Behavior. Field Methods. doi: 10.1177/1525822X16669282


    Henrich, J., R. Boyd, M. Derex, M.A. Kline, A. Mesoudi, M. Muthukrishna, A. Powell, S. Shennan, M. Thomas. 2016. Understanding Cumulative Cultural Evolution: A Reply to Vaesen, Collard, et al. [Letter to the Editor]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(44): E6724-E6725. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610005113


    Kline, M.A. 2015. How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behavior in humans and other animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, epub, 1-71. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X14000090


    Waring, T., M.A. Kline, J. Brooks, S. Goff, J. Gowdy, P. Smaldino, J. Jacquet, M. Janssen. 2015. A multilevel cultural evolutionary theory of sustainability. Ecology and Society, 20(2): 569-58. doi: 10.5751/ES-07634-200234


    Manson, J., M.M. Gervais, D.M.T. Fessler, M.A. Kline. 2014. Subclinical primary psychopathy, but not physical formidability or attractiveness, predicts conversational dominance in a zero-acquaintance situation. PLOS ONE, 9(11): e113135. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113135


    Kline, M.A., R. Boyd, J. Henrich. 2013. Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages. Human Nature, 24(4): 351-374. doi: 10.1007/s12110-013-9180-1


    Manson, J.H., G.A. Bryant, M.M. Gervais, M.A. Kline. 2013. Convergence of speech rate in conversation predicts cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(6): 419-426. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.08.001


    Kline, M.A., R. Boyd. 2010. Population size predicts technological complexity in Oceania. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277: 2559–2564. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0452


    Kline, M.A., M.M. Gervais, C. Moya, R. Boyd. (Under review). Irrelevant-action imitation is short-term and contextual: Evidence from two under-studied populations.


    Kline, M.A. (In preparation). Forms and functions of teaching in early childhood: Evidence from focal follows in Fijian villages.


    Scelza, B., S.P Prall, T. Blumenfield, A.N. Crittenden, M. Gurven, M.A. Kline, J. Koster, G. Kushnick, S.M. Mattison, E. Pillsworth, M.K. Shenk, K. Starkweather, J. Stieglitz, C. Sum, K. Yamaguchi, R. McElreath. (Submitted). Patterns of paternal investment predict cross-cultural variation in jealous response.


    C. Moya, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, H. Colleran, D. Gerkey, M.A. Gibson, M. Gurven, J. Henrich, P. Hooper, H.S. Kaplan, M.A. Kline, J.M. Koster, K.L. Kramer, D. Leonetti, S. Mattison, D. Nath, C. Sanders, B.A. Scelza, M.K. Shenk, K. Snopkowski, J. Stieglitz, M.C. Towner, C.R. von Rueden, J. Ziker, R. Sear. (Submitted). Intergenerational conflict may explain why parents delay the onset of their children’s reproduction: A cross-cultural analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 1-21.

  • Teaching

    Courses | Click here for past syllabi.

    Introductory Courses

    • Introduction to Developmental Psychology
    • Introduction to Human Evolution
    • Introduction to Biological Anthropology

    Upper Level Courses

    • Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific
    • Cultural Evolution
    • Methods in the Human Behavioral Sciences


    Graduate Level Courses

    Evolution and Human Development

    The Evolution of Cultural Evolution

    A note on "decolonizing" teaching

    I am continuously working to "decolonize" my syllabi and teaching techniques. What "decolonizing" means to me as an instructor is working to include voices of Indigenous and minoritized people within the courses I teach. This means cultivating course content and promoting classroom interactions that treat these voices not as a "yes, but..." style addendum, but as a foundational part of the content, period. I am particularly focused on educating students about Indigenous populations in Canada, in the past and present, with respect to child development and inequality.


    This is very much a work in progress, because I am still learning and working on my own understanding.


    If this is of interest to you, please feel free to contact me (makline [at] sfu.ca). I am happy to share my course materials, to recommend readings that I have found helpful, or to receive critiques or input about those materials.


  • Opportunities

    Join @CUBEDLab | Contact Dr. Kline

    Accepting students to SFU's Psychology PhD Program

    Fall 2019

    I will be accepting students to the PhD program at Simon Fraser University, in the 2019-20 application cycle. I am especially interested in students who focus on cross-cultural or evolutionary approaches to developmental psychology. Interest in conducting fieldwork (whether at home or abroad) is a plus. Please contact me via email if you are considering applying. FYI: for this and many other graduate programs, your chances of admission will be much higher if you first contact prospective advisors!


    Please note that SFU's Clinical Psychology program has a separate admissions process. Non-clinical faculty, including myself, cannot serve as primary advisors to Clinical students unless under exceptional circumstances.


    Students from under-represented groups are especially encouraged to reach out to me and apply. Check out my page on Teaching & Mentoring to see whether you think we may work well together, and my Research @CUBEDLab page to see topics I am currently working on.

    @CUBEDLab Needs Undergraduate Research Assistants!

    Fall 2019

    If you are an undergraduate who wants to get your hands into a research project, this may be an opportunity for you. I am looking for Research Assistants to contribute to several ongoing projects. Please contact me via email if you may be interested. Students from under-represented groups are especially encouraged to reach out to me and apply.

  • News

    via @CUBEDLab on Twitter